Whole-cell patch clamping in mammalian cells

Excised inside-out patch clamp in Xenopus oocytes

Two-electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes

Extracellular recordings on skin nerve preparation

Planar lipid bilayers



Calcium imaging, dual excitation with fura-2

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)

Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF)

Confocal Microscopy


Molecular Biology

Transfection of mammalian cells

Mutation of cDNA to study recombinant ion channels

RNA preparation and injection into Xenopus oocytes to study recombinant ion channels

Real-time PCR

Using genetically modified mice


Cell preparations

Primary sensory neurons from dorsal root ganglia

Cultured mammalian cells to study recombinant ion channels


Animal behavior

Aceton evaporation test

Hargreaves test

Von Frey mechanical test

Hind paw injection nocifensive test



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